Understanding Defects Liability Periods

A Defects Liability Period (DLP) is a contractual period within which a construction contractor is obliged to rectify any defects that appear in their work. The typical length of a DLP ranges from one to two years after practical completion has been reached, with a further DLP applying to previously remedied defective works.

It is essential for builders to understand the importance of DLPs in construction contracts. A DLP benefits both the principal and the construction contractor in managing their respective risks under the construction contract. From the principal’s perspective, a DLP provides comfort in taking over the works, knowing that the contractor is obliged to remedy any defects discovered during the DLP. It also ensures that the contractor is incentivized to perform the work to the required standard. From the construction contractor’s perspective, a DLP allows for payment of final milestone payments or progress claims without delay due to minor defects in the works. It also enables the contractor to maintain the integrity of any fitness for purpose warranties or design life warranties given under the contract by carrying out any defects rectification work themselves.

Importance of Defects Liability Periods

The Defects Liability Period (DLP) is a crucial aspect of any construction contract, and it provides a safety net for both the builder and the client. For builders, it is essential to manage the DLP efficiently to ensure the project’s successful completion and maintain a good reputation in the industry. During the DLP, the builder is obliged to rectify any defects that arise from the completed works. This period also provides the client with the assurance that the builder is liable for any defects that may arise after the project’s completion.

The DLP is also an excellent opportunity for builders to showcase their workmanship and demonstrate their commitment to quality. Efficient management of the DLP can help builders build trust with their clients, establish long-term relationships, and gain a competitive advantage in the market. Builders who take the DLP seriously and manage it effectively are more likely to receive positive reviews and referrals from satisfied clients, which can lead to more business opportunities. Overall, the DLP is an essential component of any construction project, and builders must understand its importance to deliver high-quality work and build lasting relationships with their clients.

Managing Defects Liability Periods

Conducting Regular Inspections: Regular inspections during the defects liability period are crucial in identifying any defects in the construction work. Builders should schedule inspections at specific intervals, such as six months after practical completion and again a few months before the end of the defects liability period. During inspections, builders should use a comprehensive checklist to ensure all aspects of the construction work are inspected. It is important to document all defects found during inspections and promptly inform the principal. Builders should also provide a timeline for rectification works and keep the principal updated on the progress of the work. Conducting regular inspections not only ensures compliance with the contractual obligations but also strengthens the relationship between the builder and principal.

Addressing Defects Promptly: One of the key ways builders can effectively manage defects liability periods is by addressing defects promptly. It is crucial to have an efficient and effective system in place for identifying and reporting defects, as well as a clear process for remediation.

Builders should conduct regular inspections throughout the construction process to identify and address any issues as soon as possible. Once the work is complete, it is important to have a system in place for recording and addressing any defects reported during the DLP.

Promptly addressing defects not only helps to ensure compliance with contractual obligations but also helps to maintain a positive relationship with the principal and avoid potential legal disputes.

Keeping Records of Inspections and Repairs

Builders must keep detailed records of inspections and repairs during the defects liability period. This record-keeping serves as evidence that the builder has complied with their contractual obligations, which can protect them from claims made by the principal for defects that have been rectified. Accurate records can also help builders identify recurring problems and the root causes of defects, which can be addressed in future projects. Builders should ensure that their records include the date and details of inspections, a description of any defects identified, and a record of any repairs carried out. These records should be easily accessible and maintained for the duration of the defects liability period.

Communicating with the Principal

Communicating with the Principal is a critical aspect of managing the Defects Liability Period (DLP). The builder must ensure that the principal is aware of the process and timeline for rectifying defects during the DLP. It is essential to establish a clear channel of communication with the principal, including providing regular updates on the rectification works. The builder must also address any concerns or questions the principal may have promptly. A good working relationship with the principal during the DLP can be advantageous, as it can lead to future business opportunities and positive referrals. Clear communication can also prevent disputes from arising between the parties.

Legal Considerations

Builders must be aware of the legal considerations associated with defects liability periods (DLPs) to ensure compliance and mitigate risks. One crucial legal consideration is the need to clearly define the DLP in the construction contract. The contract should specify the DLP’s start and end dates, the scope of the DLP, and the responsibilities of the parties during the DLP. Failing to define the DLP clearly can lead to misunderstandings and disputes between the builder and the principal.

 Another legal consideration is the principal’s right to pursue the builder for damages for breach of contract, even after the DLP’s expiration. The period within which the principal can make a claim for damages depends on whether the construction contract is executed as a deed or an agreement and applicable state legislation. Builders must ensure they have professional indemnity insurance to protect against potential claims.

Additionally, builders must be aware that specific performance of a construction contract (i.e., defect rectification) may not be granted by the courts unless exceptional circumstances apply. Thus, providing for defects rectification during the DLP is critical to create a period during which the principal is entitled to require defects rectification, and the builder is given an opportunity to rectify. Overall, being aware of these legal considerations can help builders manage DLPs effectively and avoid costly disputes.

Common Misconceptions

There are a few common misconceptions that builders should be aware of when it comes to Defects Liability Periods. Firstly, it’s important to note that the expiration of a DLP does not mean the builder’s obligation to rectify any defects comes to an end. The principal may still have the right to pursue the builder for damages for breach of contract if any defects are discovered after the DLP. The timeframe for making a claim depends on whether the contract is executed as a deed or an agreement, as well as applicable state legislation. Secondly, specific performance of a construction contract may not be granted by the courts unless exceptional circumstances apply.

Types of Claims and Time Limits

There are two types of claims that can be made during the Defects Liability Period (DLP): minor and major claims. A minor claim is defined as a defect that is not critical to the structure or functionality of the building. These types of defects are usually cosmetic or can be easily fixed without affecting the overall integrity of the structure. Examples of minor claims include chipped paint, cracked tiles, or leaking faucets.

On the other hand, major claims involve defects that are critical to the structure or functionality of the building. These types of defects could affect the safety of the building’s occupants or cause significant damage to the structure if left unattended. Examples of major claims include structural defects, water penetration, or electrical faults.

It is important to note that there are time limits for making claims during the DLP. For minor claims, the builder must be notified within a reasonable timeframe, typically 28 days, after the defect is discovered. For major claims, the time limit is longer, typically six years from the date of practical completion of the building. Builders should ensure that they are aware of the time limits for claims and respond promptly to any defect notifications to avoid potential legal disputes.

Specific Performance and Exceptional Circumstances

Specific performance is a legal remedy that requires a party to fulfil their contractual obligations, such as defect rectification. However, specific performance is not typically granted by courts in common law-based construction contracts, except under exceptional circumstances. Such circumstances include where the defect is so serious that it would be impractical or impossible to award damages, or where the subject matter of the contract is unique, such as in the case of a one-of-a-kind building. In such cases, the court may order specific performance, requiring the contractor to carry out the necessary remedial work. Builders must be aware of these exceptional circumstances when managing defects liability periods to avoid potential legal disputes.


In conclusion, managing Defects Liability Periods is crucial for builders to ensure successful project outcomes and avoid potential legal disputes. As a solicitor and construction lawyer with over 10 years of experience, I regularly advise homeowners and builders on their contractual and legal rights regarding DLPs. If you require legal advice or assistance regarding DLPs, feel free to contact me.